Background: Children under the age of five years and pregnant women have been identified as the most vulnerable risk group for malaria. In addition to scaling up of net distribution, periodic assessment of the utilization and associated factors among high risk population is important.
Objective: To assess the level of long lasting insecticide treated nets use and associated factors among under-five children and net ownership of the households.
Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Adami Tullu District from February 1-25, 2014. Cluster randomized sampling technique was used to select 748 households. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and observation checklist. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were applied for the analysis of the independent variables against long lasting insecticide treated nets use among under five children and household net ownership. The results were reported using crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence interval. Results: Household ownership of at least one long lasting insecticide net was 188 (25.3%). About two third, 101(63.9%) of under-five children slept under net the night preceding the survey among net owning households. Knowledge that sleeping under net every night prevents malaria [Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR (95%CI) =4.7 (1.1-9.6)], spouse education [AOR (95%CI) =1.74 (1.2-2.6)], and kebeles (small admistrative unit) i.e. Bochessa [AOR (95%CI) =2.2 (1.2-4.1)], Elka Chellemo [AOR (95%CI) =2.3(1.2-4.4)] were associated with net ownership. Net utilization among under-five children was affected by knowledge that LLIN kills malaria mosquitoes [AOR (95%CI) =3.8 (1.15-12.4), knowing fever as a symptom of malaria [AOR (95%CI) =3.2(1.05-9.6)] and male gender of the child [AOR (95%CI) =6.0 (2.5-12.8).
Conclusion: The ownership of long lasting insecticide treated nets and the use among high risk population remained low. Information, Education and Communication (IEC) on the net use need to focus on avoiding gender discrimination among under-five child. Further research is needed to study the decline in household ownership.
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