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Determinants of Adverse Birth Outcome among Mothers who Gave Birth at Hospitals in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Facility Based Case Control Study

Background: The magnitude of perinatal mortality in Ethiopia was among the highest in Sub Saharan Africa. Hence, achievement of reducing perinatal and neonatal death is strongly influenced by the a number of adverse birth outcomes; and since preterm birth is the leading cause of these deaths, progress is dependent on achieving high coverage of evidencebased interventions to prevent preterm delivery and to improve survival for preterm newborns including Ethiopia. Therefore identifying those problems is a priority area to give policy insight and recommendations. The aim of the study was to determine the factors associated with adverse birth outcome among mothers who gave birth in Gamogofa zone hospitals.

Methods: An unmatched case-control study design was conducted among 420 women (158 cases and 262 controls) who gave birth in the selected hospitals using systematic random sampling technique. Data was collected through face to face interview and using data extraction sheet from delivery registration book. The data was collected by trained Midwives using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary and Multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed at significance level of p value ≤ 0.25 and ≤ 0.05, respectively.

Findings: In this study, 262 (62.4%) controls and 158 (37.6%) cases were involved with a response rate of 98.5%. Most of the participant’s (98%) pregnancy among cases and (90.1%) controls were planned. In multivariable analysis Rural residence [AOR=3.338, 95% CI (1.055, 10.566)], Multigravida [AOR=6.65, 95% CI (1.876, 23.579)], Being male baby [AOR=26.41, 95% CI (3.149, 221.414)], Do not know danger signs during pregnancy [AOR=102.41, 95% CI (17.477,600,11)] and Do not know danger signs during Labour [AOR=14.3, 95% CI (1.951,600,12)] were significantly associated with adverse birth outcome.

Conclusion: Adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight, still birth, and preterm birth) were still a major public health problems in the study area. Rural residence, muligravida, being a male baby and lack of knowledge about danger signs during pregnancy and labor was a factor which had associations with adverse birth outcomes. Therefore, providing appropriate information on danger signs encountered during pregnancy and labour and the number of pregnancy is very important.


Feleke Gebremeskel, Teklemariam Gultie, Gemechu Kejela, Desta Hailu, Yinager Workneh

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