Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an insidious, chronic, progressive, debilitating disease. It is mostly prevalent in the South-east Asian countries. Areca nut chewing usually causes the condition. The hallmark of the disease being sub mucosal fibrosis that affects most parts of the oral cavity, pharynx and upper third of the oesophagus and its clinical presentation depends on the stage of the disease at detection. As the disease has a spectrum of presentation, the management differs with the various stages of the disease. This article reviews the etiopathogenesis and the various medical management techniques of oral submucous fibrosis.